The condition can be suspected when there is quick significant progression of myopia (nearsightedness) and astigmatism. The more advanced cases can be easily diagnosed with a simple examination by an ophthalmologist, however the early stages of the disease require sensitive and special testing.
Mild forms of keratoconus can be observed, and the vision can be optimized as much as possible with glasses. As the condition progresses, visual rehabilitation will require contact lenses, and the very advanced forms may require surgery, which includes different options such as full thickness or partial thickness corneal transplantation, or the insertion of special implants known as intracorneal ring segments. Options are selected based on the specifics of an individual’s condition.
During the last several years, a new form of treatment known as corneal collagen cross linking has been developed. The treatment utilizes ultraviolet light to induce the formation of reinforcing links between the layers of the cornea, with the goal of stabilizing the progression, and in some cases even reverting some of the irregular steepening.